Power battery-principle and functional design requirements of power battery energy management system

  1. Principle of power battery energy management system

The function of power battery energy management system in electric vehicle is to control the energy flow of high-voltage electric energy between high-voltage electric equipment such as energy storage device, motor, inverter and air conditioning compressor, as well as the energy transfer between electronic power converter, control system and auxiliary devices, so as to make high-voltage electric energy use efficiently and safely [86].

The power battery energy management system takes the chip processor as the center and forms a system together with various sensors and actuators [87]. The energy management system obtains the voltage, current and temperature status information of the power battery through the sensor. These information, together with the monitored relay status, hvil status, insulation status and the status of each high-voltage component, are used as the basis for real-time judgment and calculation, and the corresponding processing actions are completed through the actuator. For example, the energy management system monitors the voltage, electric quantity and temperature information of each battery unit and performs calculation and processing, and the equalization unit completes the electric quantity equalization and temperature equalization of the battery pack [88, 89].

The following figure is a typical battery management system architecture, which includes daughter board module, measurement module, relay module, safety module, communication module, etc. with the motherboard as the core. The seven sub boards in the figure are used to detect the voltage, current and temperature of the battery module; The measurement module realizes the voltage measurement of the main board to the power line and low-voltage line; The relay module includes the action control of the main positive and negative relays, precharge relays, fast charge and slow charge relays; The safety module realizes the insulation detection of the total positive and negative ends of the power line and the high-voltage interlock safety circuit; The mainboard interacts with the sub board and insulation detection through can data communication, and the mainboard interacts with external communication and fast charging charger through can data communication.

Architecture principle of battery management system
Architecture principle of battery management system
  1. Functional requirements of power battery energy management system design

From the perspective of vehicle high-voltage control strategy, this content focuses on the management of energy management and safety protection of power battery system, that is, power battery energy management system. The functional requirements for the design of power battery energy management system include:

(1) Power on / off control. Strictly control the power on and power off sequence and process to meet the power on and power off requirements of the whole vehicle.

(2) Relay control and disconnect the relay in case of emergency. The high-voltage relay is controlled according to the instructions of the vehicle controller (VCU), and the control mode is low side drive. VCU shall be able to directly disconnect the high-voltage relay during emergency power down.

(3) Precharge control function. According to the power on and power off sequence requirements, the precharge time is ≤ 300ms, and the precharge time is the time from the beginning of closing the precharge relay to the time when the bus voltage outside the load reaches 90% of the total voltage of the power battery.

(4) Communication function. Meet can2 0b protocol, baud rate is 500kbit / s, BMS shall have 120 Ω terminal resistance, and the communication protocol between DC charging pile and battery energy management system meets the requirements of national standard GB / t27930.

(5) Fault diagnosis function. The fault diagnosis contents of battery energy management system shall include but not limited to: over temperature (including over temperature, under temperature and over temperature difference), over voltage (over voltage of single body or total voltage, under voltage of single body or total voltage and over voltage difference of single body), low insulation resistance, hvil status, relay status, communication status, over-current, etc.

(6) High voltage safety protection function. The battery energy management system shall have the following protection functions: overvoltage protection, low voltage protection, discharge overcurrent protection, charging overcurrent protection, high temperature protection, emergency power failure, high voltage interlock and collision protection.

(7) Insulation status detection, relay status detection and hvil status detection.

(8) Various signal acquisition, including current, total voltage, monomer voltage, temperature, etc.

(9) Charging control function. Realize the control of fast charge and slow charge according to the charging requirements.

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