Energy system structure and power flow analysis of pure electric vehicle

The power battery energy management system is one of the key technologies of electric vehicles. At present, the research on power battery energy management system mainly focuses on the energy management strategies of hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. Due to the complex powertrain system of hybrid electric vehicles, there are many control strategies and a large space for development. For example, the commonly used control strategies for series hybrid electric vehicles include thermostat strategy, power tracking strategy and basic rule strategy; the commonly used control strategies for parallel hybrid electric vehicles include static logic threshold strategy, instantaneous optimal energy management strategy, and fuzzy logic control. strategy and global optimal energy management strategy, etc.; the commonly used control strategies for hybrid hybrid vehicles include engine constant operating point strategy, engine optimal working curve strategy, etc.

Pure electric vehicles can be divided into multiple energy source systems and single energy source systems according to the number of energy sources. The multi-energy source is mainly a dual-energy source system composed of a battery and a supercapacitor. The main feature of the supercapacitor’s large charge and discharge rate is used to make up for the shortcomings of the power battery by cutting peaks and filling valleys. At the same time, due to the existence of supercapacitors, which increases the complexity of the powertrain system, the available control strategies are also much more than that of single energy sources, such as threshold control strategies and fuzzy logic control strategies. For pure electric vehicles with a single energy source, because the powertrain system is simpler than that of hybrid and multi-energy source systems, there is less room for control strategies.

Combining the energy management and control strategies of pure electric vehicles of Chinese and foreign OEMs, the main control strategies are as follows: one is to reduce the energy usage rate of the entire vehicle, and only retain the high-voltage load necessary for the vehicle to travel, so as to minimize the energy consumption of the entire vehicle. The power consumption of the high-voltage system is to allocate all the limited power to the drive system; the second is to improve the efficiency of battery use. Through the use of the thermal management system, the battery has been controlled in the high-efficiency range. Although the first method can save the power consumption during driving to the greatest extent, due to the lack of the battery thermal management system, the long-term high temperature operation will accelerate the aging of the battery, which will sacrifice the economic performance of the vehicle; the second method is the most commonly used threshold. Although the control strategy is simple and stable, it cannot optimally solve the power distribution problem due to the fixed control rules, thus affecting the dynamic performance of the vehicle.

  1. Energy system structure and power flow analysis of pure electric vehicle

The high-voltage system components of pure electric vehicles are mainly divided into air-conditioning system components, drive system components, low-voltage power supply system components and charging system components. Among them, the low-voltage power supply system components convert high-voltage electricity into low-voltage electricity to support the entire vehicle electronic components , the operation of low-voltage equipment such as power steering, water pumps and fans. Charging system components replenish energy from the grid through chargers or other charging equipment. The air conditioning system components are mainly used to improve driver comfort and thermal management of the power battery. The high-voltage components are the electric heater (PTC) for heating and the air compressor (ACP) for cooling, and the drive system components are used to drive the motor to the outside. Doing work, you can also brake to recover part of the energy.

From the above-mentioned components of the power battery system and the high-voltage system, a schematic diagram of the power flow of the vehicle energy management system as shown in FIG. 1 can be obtained. It describes the input-output relationship of power flow between the power battery system and the high-voltage system of the vehicle.

Figure 1 - Power flow of vehicle energy management system
Figure 1 – Power flow of vehicle energy management system

In the figure, Pbat represents the maximum output power of the power battery system. PA-c represents the maximum power allocated by the energy management system to the air conditioning system. Since the comfort system and the thermal management system share power devices, in order to describe their functions intuitively, the air conditioning system is equivalent to a thermal management system, which is called PT-M. Pmotor represents the maximum power that the energy management system can allocate to the drive system. PL-p represents the required power of the low-voltage power supply system. Pm represents the maximum rechargeable power of the charging system.
During the driving process of the vehicle: Pcha(t)=0; PL-p(t) is a fixed value, which is equal to the DC/DC rated power in value and must be allocated; PT-M(t) and Pmotor(t) The size can be determined according to the power required by the power bus under different working conditions, and it is an amount that can be adjusted and allocated. Let the power that can be allocated by the vehicle energy management system be Pe(t), then:

Obviously, the purpose of the vehicle energy management system is to reasonably allocate Pe(t) to PT-M(t) and Pmotor(t), so as to maximize the energy utilization efficiency of the vehicle.

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